ANAPHORIC AND CATAPHORIC REFERENCE PDF

What a mouthful! In short, anaphoric and cataphoric references are emphatic styles of sentence structure taught at C1 — C2 level. They are used to insert emphasis into the first clause of a statement. Here are two examples:. The subject in the second clause is unspecified. In other words, tell the reader what the subject is first, then reference back to it and add information in the second clause.

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Cataphorism is a grammatical expression that refers to a word or a phrase that links to another word or phrase which was used after in the same text. If you call him, tell Sam to come as soon as possible. Cataphoric Reference:. The use of such terms words or phrases that are referring forward to something said or written afterwards in the same text is termed as cataphoric reference.

They were all sitting quietly, all students was speechless. In the above example, they is used as a cataphora and is a cataphoric reference to students. Note that both they and students refer to the same collective noun and the noun students is used afterwards.

Despite referring to nouns, cataphoric reference can also be used to refer other ideas used forward in the same text. Advanced psychology is in demand these days. In the above example, it is is an example of anaphoric reference which refers forward to Advanced Psychology. After all, most communication takes place in reports, emails, and instant messages.

Cataphorism is a grammatical expression that refers to a word or a phrase that links to another word or phrase which was used after in the same text Example: If you call him, tell Sam to come as soon as possible. Cataphoric Reference: The use of such terms words or phrases that are referring forward to something said or written afterwards in the same text is termed as cataphoric reference.

Example: They were all sitting quietly, all students was speechless. Rate this article: 0. Have a discussion about this article with the community:. Powered by CITE. Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE! Thanks for your vote!

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Cataphora in English Grammar

Cataphorism is a grammatical expression that refers to a word or a phrase that links to another word or phrase which was used after in the same text. If you call him, tell Sam to come as soon as possible. Cataphoric Reference:. The use of such terms words or phrases that are referring forward to something said or written afterwards in the same text is termed as cataphoric reference. They were all sitting quietly, all students was speechless. In the above example, they is used as a cataphora and is a cataphoric reference to students. Note that both they and students refer to the same collective noun and the noun students is used afterwards.

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Cataphoric vs Anaphoric References

Anaphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned earlier in the discourse. Michael went to the bank. He was annoyed because it was closed. He refers to Michael.

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