The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language. The letters Q chiu , W dublu v , and Y igrec or i grec were formally introduced in the Romanian alphabet in , although they had been used earlier. They occur only in foreign words and their Romanian derivatives, such as quasar , watt , and yacht. The letter K , although relatively older, is also rarely used and appears only in proper names and international neologisms such as kilogram , broker , karate. Romanian spelling is mostly phonemic without silent letters but see i. The table below gives the correspondence between letters and sounds.
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The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language. The letters Q chiu , W dublu v , and Y igrec or i grec were formally introduced in the Romanian alphabet in , although they had been used earlier.
They occur only in foreign words and their Romanian derivatives, such as quasar , watt , and yacht. The letter K , although relatively older, is also rarely used and appears only in proper names and international neologisms such as kilogram , broker , karate.
Romanian spelling is mostly phonemic without silent letters but see i. The table below gives the correspondence between letters and sounds.
Some of the letters have several possible readings, even if allophones are not taken into account. Letters K, Q, W, and Y appear only in foreign borrowings; the pronunciation of W and Y and of the combination QU depends on the origin of the word they appear in. Romanian orthography does not use accents or diacritics — these are secondary symbols added to letters i.
There are, however, five special letters in the Romanian alphabet associated with four different sounds which are formed by modifying other Latin letters; strictly speaking these letters function as basic glyphs in their own right rather than letters with diacritical marks, but they are often referred to as the latter. Romanian writings, including books created to teach children to write, treat the comma and cedilla as a variation in font.
The reason for using both of them is historical, denoting the language's Latin origin. The move was publicly justified as the rectification either of a Communist assault on tradition, or of a Soviet influence on the Romanian culture, and as a return to a traditional spelling that bears the mark of the language's Latin origin.
Exceptions include proper nouns where the usage of the letters is frozen, whichever it may be, and compound words, whose components are each separately subjected to the rule e. While the spelling norm is compulsory in Romanian education and official publications, and gradually most other publications came to use it, there are still individuals, publications and publishing houses preferring the previous spelling norm or a mixed hybrid system of their own.
Many printed and online texts still incorrectly use " s with cedilla " and " t with cedilla ". This state of affairs is due to an initial lack of glyph standardization, compounded by the lack of computer font support for the comma-below variants see the Unicode section for details. The lack of support for the comma diacritics has been corrected in current versions of major operating systems: Windows Vista or newer, Linux distributions after , and currently supported Mac OS versions.
As mandated by the European Union, Microsoft released a font update to correct this deficiency in Windows XP in early , soon after Romania joined the European Union.
Before the spelling reform of , there were several additional letters with diacritical marks. Use of these letters was not fully adopted even before , as some publications e. Timpul and Universul chose to use a simplified approach that resembled today's Romanian language writing. As with other languages, the acute accent is sometimes used in Romanian texts to indicate the stressed vowel in some words. However, frequently used foreign names, such as names of cities or countries, are often spelled without diacritics: Bogota , Panama , Peru.
This code page includes only "s" and "t" with cedillas. The ISO code page became a standard after Unicode became widespread, however, so it was largely ignored by software vendors. The circumflex and breve accented Romanian letters were part of the Unicode standard since its inception, as well as the cedilla variants of s and t.
Widespread adoption was hampered for some years by the lack of fonts providing the new glyphs. In May , five months after Romania and Bulgaria joined the EU , Microsoft released updated fonts that include all official glyphs of the Romanian and Bulgarian alphabet. The subset of Unicode most widely supported on Microsoft Windows systems, Windows Glyph List 4 , still does not include the comma-below variants of S and T.
It is in fact used, but in very few languages. T with Cedilla exists as part of the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages, in some Gagauz orthographies, in the Kabyle dialect of the Berber language, and possibly elsewhere. Linotype fonts that support Romanian glyphs mostly follow this convention. The fonts introduced by Microsoft in Windows Vista also implement this de facto Adobe standard.
The free DejaVu and Linux Libertine fonts provide proper and consistent glyphs in both variants. Red Hat 's Liberation fonts only support the comma below variants starting with version 1.
When this second but optional remapping takes place, Romanian Unicode text is rendered with comma-below glyphs regardless of code point variants. Select few fonts, e.
The free DejaVu and Linux Libertine fonts do not yet offer this feature in their current releases, but development versions do. Pango supports the locl tag since version 1. XeTeX supports locl since version 0. As of July , very few Windows applications support the locl feature tag. The status of Romanian support in the free fonts that ship with Fedora is maintained at Fedoraproject.
Unicode also allows diacritical marks to be represented as separate combining diacritical marks. Support for applying a combining Comma Below to letters S and T may have been poorly supported in commercial fonts in the past, but nearly all modern fonts can successfully handle both the Cedilla and Comma Below marks for S and T. As with all fonts, typographical quality can vary, and so it is preferable to use the single code points instead.
Whenever a combining diacritical mark is used in a document, the font in use should be tested to confirm that it is rendered acceptably. The comma-below variants are not completely supported in the standard 8-bit TeX font encodings.
This is unfortunately not supported by the utf8 input method. The latin10 package composes the comma-below glyphs by superimposing a comma and the letters S and T. This method is suitable only for printing. In PDF documents produced this way searching or copying text does not work properly. In consequence, no fixed mapping can work across all Type 1 fonts; each font must come with its own mapping. Since all of the output drivers mentioned are unaware of this peculiarity, the problem is essentially intractable across all fonts.
In consequence, one needs to use fonts that include a mapping which is not bypassed by TeX. Modern computer operating systems can be configured to implement a standard Romanian keyboard layout, to permit typing on any keyboard as if it were a Romanian keyboard.
The system's keyboard layout must be set up to use a compose-key. Exactly how this is accomplished depends on the distribution. For instance, the 'left Alt' key is often used as a compose-key. To type a letter with a diacritical mark, the compose-key is held down while another key is typed indicate the mark to be applied, then the base letter is typed.
Other marks may be similarly applied as follows:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Romanian phonology. Main article: Romanian keyboard layout. Lexicologie" PDF. Retrieved 19 April That is all. Established not on linguistic grounds, but on political grounds. It was the conclusion of a process that had begun a few years earlier, by which the Academy, an institution with a history of over years at that point, was entirely subordinated to the Party.
In , her husband was to become himself a full member as well as the honorary president of the Academy. Romanian language articles. Substrata Balkan sprachbund Relationship with Albanian Slavic superstratum and adstratum Re-latinization. Romanians origin diaspora Moldovans Vlachs. Orthographies of the world's languages. Categories : Latin alphabets Romanian language. Hidden categories: Articles with Romanian-language sources ro All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links Articles containing Romanian-language text Articles with dead external links from August Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing Spanish-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Use dmy dates from June Namespaces Article Talk.
Indicates palatalization of the preceding consonant when word-final and unstressed, in some compounds like oricum , and in the combinations chia, chio, chiu, ghia, ghio, ghiu.
Nickname – Abecedar
National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Read more Coseski, Zoran.
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Carti. Caiet.special.abecedar. Clasa.1. Ed.cd.Press.