ARSITEKTUR DEKONSTRUKSI PDF

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Arsitek pada masa itu adalah seorang pengrajin craftsman yang dipekerjakan oleh negara atau klien khusus yang kaya. Arsitek disamakan dengan kontraktor bangunan. Nama- mana arsitek seringkali tidak dikenal sebelum abad ke-5 Masehi. Misalnya, Iktinos yang merancang Parthenon pada masanya diperlakukan tidak berbeda daripada seorang pedagang terpandang. Iktinos bersama asisten arsiteknya yaitu Kallikrates merancang Parthenon.

The architecture of ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes. Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own.

The Roman use of the arch and their improvements in the use of concrete facilitated the the building of the many aqueducts throughout the empire. The invention of the Christian Church was achieved by process of assimilating and rejecting various precedents, such as the Greek temple, the Roman public building, the private Roman house, and the synagogue. Early Christian Architecture: basilical church developed from Roman secular basilica, centralized type form Roman tombs.

Basilical plan modified for liturgical requirements, congregration and clergy segregated in nave and aisles vs.

Different variants in Eas and West. In Rome, classical marble wall membering and vocabulary and emphasis on massive wall, gradually replaced by broad, flat surfaces, evenly lighted, plain brick exteriors, mosaic bands of interiors. Long planes with little articulation, either horizontal or vertical. Romanesque architecture was a continuation of the Roman. Romanesque was first applied by the archaeologist Charles de Gerville or his associate Arcisse de Caumont in the early 19 th century to describe Western European architecture from the 5 th to the 13 th centuries.

The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10 th to the 12 th century. A prominent feature of many Romanesque churches is the addition fo multiple chapels radiating chapels. The building material differs greatly across Europe, depending upon the local stone and building traditions.

In Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherlands, brick is generally used. Other areas saw extensive use of limestone, granite and flint. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.

The Gothic style when applied to an ecclesiastical building emphasizes verticality and light. This appearance was achieved by the development of certain architectural features which together provided an engineering solution. The pointed arches were used in Islamic architecture before they were used structurally in European architecture. In Gothic Architecture, the pointed arch is used in every location where a vaulted shape is called for both structural and decorative.

Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have pointed arches. The influence of Islamic architecture on the Gothic can be most clearly seen in Spain. The pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was passible in Romanesque architecture. Sructurally, use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form, it also gave Gothic architecture a very different visual character, suggesting an aspiration to Heaven.

The employment of the fyling buttress means that the load bearing walls can contain cut- outs such as for large windows that would otherwise seriously weaken them. Arsitektur Renaissance pertama kali muncul pada abad 15 di Italia Utara yang memiliki kestabilan sosio-politik. Florence adalah kota- negara yang independen, kota yang paling mengingatkan pada masa klasik Italy. Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15 th and early 17 th centuries in different regions of Europe, in which there was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

Kata mannerism digunakan oleh ahli sejarah seni sejak Perang Dunia I seperti Heinrich Wolfflin untuk menjelaskan gejala seni di Italia pada abad Mannerisme digunakan untuk menjelaskan gaya seni pada rentang waktu sampai yang memperlihatkan lukisan- lukisan dengan proporsi tubuh seperti ditarik memanjang, beberapa deformasi bentuk, dan pose- pose janggal dengan tujuan menciptakan dramatisasi. The style lasted until about in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it but continued into the seventeenth century throughout much of Europe.

Starting in the early 17 th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. New architectural concerns for color, light and shade, sculptural values and intensity characterize the Baroque.

Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter- Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Setelah tahun an, arsitektur Renaisans mulai meninggalkan gaya- gaya klasik kemudian disambung dengan kebudayaan Barok dan Rococo.

Contoh aliran Barok adalah Gereja St. Peter di Roma. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.

It was largely supplanted by the Neoclassic style. The s represented the height of Rococo development in France. The style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture. The lighthearted themes and intricate design of Rococo presented themselves best at a smaller scale than the imposing Baroque architecture and sculpture.

There is no consensus on when to date the start of the age of Enlightenment and some scholars simply use the beginning of the eighteenth century or the middle of the seventeenth century as a default date. Some classifications of this period also include the late 17 th century, which is typically known as the Age of Reason or Age of Rationalism. The intellectual principles of Rationalism are based on architectural theory.

Progessive art theory of the 18 th century opposed the Baroque beauty of illusionism with the classic beauty of truth and reason. The name given to quite distinct movements in architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture usually that of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. This movements is not only in architecture but also in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music. Neoclassicism began after A. Bentuk arsitektur yang dianggap ideal kemudian diwujudkan ke dalam bentukan berkonstruksi kolom dan balok dan tidak hanya bentukan dari konstruksi dinding pemikul.

Wujud arsitekturnya juda dapat ditandai dengan munculnya unsur- unsur dekoratif seperti pediment, pedestal, entablature terpotong dan sebagainya.

Dalam sejumlah proyek dapat disaksikan bahwa bentukan yang kanonik masih dipakai untuk diletakkan pada posisi olahan komposisional. Beaux-Arts architecuture denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. The Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture. A period in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, production, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain.

The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The most immediate changes were in the nature of production: what was produced, as well as where and how.

Efek : Perubahan teknologi, sosio-ekonomi dan budaya karena ekonomi yang berbasiskan tenaga kerja manusia digantikan oleh industril dan manufaktur mesin. Bahan bangunan baru: besi cor, kaca, beton beton mejadi popular terutama untuk struktur pelabuhan dan jembatan. Teknologi bangunan dan konstruksi skala besar dengan bahan beton bertulang. Penemuan elevator dan struktur baja mendorong bangunan bertingkat.

Estetika mesin. Pendidikan profesi:. He was inspired by the emerging impressionist and pointillist artist and also by the possibilities of working in steel and glass. Affecting the decorative art such as: architecture, interior design, industrial design, as well as the visual arts such as: fashion, painting, graphic arts and film.

Karena merupakan langgam seni rupa yang pernah melanda dunia di tahun an, maka art deco sering kali juga disebut The Decorative Twenties John Nankivell, Art Nouveau and Art Deco in Java, Gerakan Art Deco dikatakan juga sebagai percampuran dari berbagai ragam gaya dan gerakan yang berkembang pada awal abad ke seperti : Constructivism, Cubism, Modernism, Bauhaus, Art Nouveau, and Futurism.

Many design movements often have political or philosophical roots or intentions, but Art Deco was purely decorative. At the time, this style was seen as elegant, functional, and ultra modern. French artists formed a formal collective known as, La Societe des artistes decorateurs. These artists heavily influenced the principles of Art Deco as a whole. The design influences were expressed in fractionated, crystalline, faceted forms of decorative Cubism and Futurism. Other popular themes in art deco were trapezoidal, zigzagged, geometric, and jumbled shapes , which can be seen in many early pieces.

The Art Deco style — streamline, celebrates the Machine Age through explicit use of man-made materials particularly glass and stainless steel , symmetry , repetition. Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect.

It is a subjective art form. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst an acute but unspecific feeling of anxiety, usually reserved for philosophical anxiety about the world or about personal freedom. Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Northern Europe during the first decades of the 20 th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts.

Today the meaning has broadened even further to refer to architecture of any date or location that exhibits some of the qualities of the original movement such as; distortion, fragmentation, communication of violent, overstressed emotion. An active force lasted until around , having a great deal of effedt on developments in the are of the Weimar Republic and elsewhere, before being replaced by Socialist Realism.

An art movement that originated in Italy at the beginning of the 20 th century. A largely Italian and Russian movement, although it also had adherents in other countries, England for example. An art movement focused on fundamental geometriv forms in particular the square and circle which formed in Russia in Segi empat, kotak, lingkaran, segitiga adalah bentuk- bentuk yang mendominasi baik dalam gambar, lukisan, desain atau sculpture. Yang ingin disampaikan dengan bentuk tersebut adalah dominasi dunia modern dari abad mesin terhadap alam.

Oleh karena itu karyanya seringkali sulit dimengerti oleh masyarakat karena tidak memiliki acuan dunia nyata yang familiar. Di sekolah ini tidak dibedakan antara seniman dan craftsmen.

Bangunan merupakan kesatuan karya dari arsitek, painter, sculptor. Landasan Bauhaus adalah metoda pengajaran yang berorientasi sosial, seorang seniman harus sadar akan tanggung jawab sosialnya terhadap masyarakat.

Setiap mahasiswa harus melengkai kuliah wajib di awal setelah itu harus masuk workshop pilihannya. Ada beberapa workshop yang tersedia: logam, sculpture kayu, lukisan kaca, tekstil, keramik, perabot, karya 3D, tipografi, lukisan dinding.

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Wednesday, October 23, dekonstruksi. Bentuk arsitektur yang dilahirkan oleh filsafat Barat yang terlalu menekankan pada logosentrime atau objektivistik yang disebut dengan gerakan modern. Gerakan ini menekankan pada bentuk geometris yaitu bentuk dasar sebagai bentuk akhir yang bersifat statis dan monoton. Sebagai upaya untuk membongkar sifat statis dan monoton yang. Arsitektur dekonstruksi. Arsitektur dekonstruksi merupakan suatu pendekatan desain bangunan yang merupakan usaha-usaha percobaan untuk melihat arsitektur dari sisi yang lain.

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Pengoreksian International Style yang diprakarsai oleh Wolfgang Weingart an disebabkan oleh prinsip desain modern dengan universalisme dan singularitas kebenarannya telah membatasi paradigma berpikir seorang desainer sehingga karya yang dihasilkan para desainer pada periode tersebut terlihat identik dan tipikal. Dekonstruksi hadir dengan latar-belakang posmodernisme yang berdasarkan pemikiran filsafat bahwa susunan pemikiran yang begitu terpadu, yang tersusun rapi, kini dipilah-pilah sampai ke dasar-dasarnya. Kehadiran dekonstruksi dilihat sebagai bagian dari posmodernisme yang secara epistemologi atau filsafat pengetahuan, harus menerima suatu kenyataan bahwa manusia tidak boleh terpaku pada suatu sistim pemikiran yang begitu ketat dan kaku. Menghasilkan karya desain yang aneh, ganjil, maupun modern yang keluar dari aturan baku hendaknya bukan tujuan utama bagi para desainer.

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