Toggle navigation. A world at arms Weinberg, Gerhard L. Sin ediciones Obra. La seconde guerre mondiale Michel, Henri Sin ediciones Obra. The end of the beginning Churchill, Winston, Sin ediciones Obra.

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Mediterranean and Middle East. The vast majority of the world's countries —including all the great powers —eventually formed two opposing military alliances : the Allies and the Axis. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort , blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Tens of millions of people died during the conflict due to genocides including the Holocaust , premeditated death from starvation , massacres , and disease.

Aircraft played a major role in the conflict which included the use of terror bombing , strategic bombing and the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan , which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific , was at war with China by , [b] though neither side had declared war on the other.

From late to early , in a series of campaigns and treaties , Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe , and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan.

Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa , and the Fall of France in mid, the war continued primarily between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. On 22 June , the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union , opening the largest land theatre of war in history. Following an immediate U. Japan soon captured much of the Western Pacific, which was originally perceived by some in the region as liberation from Western dominance, but the public opinion turned against them within weeks due to their excessive brutality.

Key setbacks in —which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy , and Allied victories in the Pacific—cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts.

In the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France , while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. The war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria , Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August , cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies.

Tribunals were set up by the Allies, and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and against the Japanese. The United Nations UN was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts; the victorious great powers —China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States—became the permanent members of its Security Council.

The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers , setting the stage for the nearly half-century-long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.

Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery and expansion. Political integration, especially in Europe , began as an effort to forestall future hostilities, end pre-war enmities and forge a sense of common identity.

The start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September , [3] [4] beginning with the German invasion of Poland ; the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany two days later.

The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July , [5] [6] or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September Others follow the British historian A. Taylor , who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously, and the two wars merged in This article uses the conventional dating. The exact date of the war's end is also not universally agreed upon.

It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August V-J Day , rather than the formal surrender of Japan , which was on 2 September that officially ended the war in Asia. A peace treaty with Japan was signed in World War I had radically altered the political European map, with the defeat of the Central Powers —including Austria-Hungary , Germany , Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire —and the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia , which eventually led to the founding of the Soviet Union.

To prevent a future world war, the League of Nations was created during the Paris Peace Conference. The organisation's primary goals were to prevent armed conflict through collective security , military and naval disarmament , and settling international disputes through peaceful negotiations and arbitration. These sentiments were especially marked in Germany because of the significant territorial, colonial, and financial losses incurred by the Treaty of Versailles.

Under the treaty, Germany lost around 13 percent of its home territory and all its overseas possessions , while German annexation of other states was prohibited, reparations were imposed, and limits were placed on the size and capability of the country's armed forces. The German Empire was dissolved in the German Revolution of — , and a democratic government, later known as the Weimar Republic , was created.

The interwar period saw strife between supporters of the new republic and hardline opponents on both the right and left. Italy, as an Entente ally, had made some post-war territorial gains; however, Italian nationalists were angered that the promises made by the United Kingdom and France to secure Italian entrance into the war were not fulfilled in the peace settlement.

From to , the Fascist movement led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy with a nationalist, totalitarian , and class collaborationist agenda that abolished representative democracy, repressed socialist, left-wing and liberal forces, and pursued an aggressive expansionist foreign policy aimed at making Italy a world power , promising the creation of a " New Roman Empire ".

Adolf Hitler , after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government in , eventually became the Chancellor of Germany in He abolished democracy, espousing a radical, racially motivated revision of the world order , and soon began a massive rearmament campaign.

The situation was aggravated in early when the Territory of the Saar Basin was legally reunited with Germany and Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, accelerated his rearmament programme, and introduced conscription. The United Kingdom , France and Italy formed the Stresa Front in April in order to contain Germany, a key step towards military globalisation ; however, that June, the United Kingdom made an independent naval agreement with Germany, easing prior restrictions.

The Soviet Union, concerned by Germany's goals of capturing vast areas of Eastern Europe , drafted a treaty of mutual assistance with France. Before taking effect, though, the Franco-Soviet pact was required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially toothless. Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarising the Rhineland in March , encountering little opposition due to appeasement.

The Kuomintang KMT party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mids, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese Communist Party allies [23] and new regional warlords.

In , an increasingly militaristic Empire of Japan , which had long sought influence in China [24] as the first step of what its government saw as the country's right to rule Asia , staged the Mukden Incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria and establish the puppet state of Manchukuo.

China appealed to the League of Nations to stop the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations after being condemned for its incursion into Manchuria. The two nations then fought several battles, in Shanghai , Rehe and Hebei , until the Tanggu Truce was signed in Thereafter, Chinese volunteer forces continued the resistance to Japanese aggression in Manchuria , and Chahar and Suiyuan.

The war began with the invasion of the Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy Regno d'Italia , which was launched from Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations, but the League did little when the former clearly violated Article X of the League's Covenant.

When civil war broke out in Spain, Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Nationalist rebels , led by General Francisco Franco. Italy supported the Nationalists to a greater extent than the Nazis did: altogether Mussolini sent to Spain more than 70, ground troops and 6, aviation personnel, as well as about aircraft. More than 30, foreign volunteers, known as the International Brigades , also fought against the Nationalists.

Both Germany and the Soviet Union used this proxy war as an opportunity to test in combat their most advanced weapons and tactics.

In July , Japan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of Peking after instigating the Marco Polo Bridge Incident , which culminated in the Japanese campaign to invade all of China. The Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December After the fall of Nanking, tens of thousands if not hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants were murdered by the Japanese.

In March , Nationalist Chinese forces won their first major victory at Taierzhuang but then the city of Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May. In the mid-to-late s, Japanese forces in Manchukuo had sporadic border clashes with the Soviet Union and Mongolia. The Japanese doctrine of Hokushin-ron , which emphasised Japan's expansion northward, was favoured by the Imperial Army during this time. With the Japanese defeat at Khalkin Gol in , the ongoing Second Sino-Japanese War [45] and ally Nazi Germany pursuing neutrality with the Soviets, this policy would prove difficult to maintain.

Japan and the Soviet Union eventually signed a Neutrality Pact in April , and Japan adopted the doctrine of Nanshin-ron , promoted by the Navy, which took its focus southward, eventually leading to its war with the United States and the Western Allies. In Europe, Germany and Italy were becoming more aggressive. In March , Germany annexed Austria , again provoking little response from other European powers.

Soon the United Kingdom and France followed the appeasement policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement , which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands. Although all of Germany's stated demands had been satisfied by the agreement, privately Hitler was furious that British interference had prevented him from seizing all of Czechoslovakia in one operation.

In subsequent speeches Hitler attacked British and Jewish "war-mongers" and in January secretly ordered a major build-up of the German navy to challenge British naval supremacy. In March , Germany invaded the remainder of Czechoslovakia and subsequently split it into the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and a pro-German client state , the Slovak Republic. Greatly alarmed and with Hitler making further demands on the Free City of Danzig , the United Kingdom and France guaranteed their support for Polish independence ; when Italy conquered Albania in April , the same guarantee was extended to Romania and Greece.

The situation reached a general crisis in late August as German troops continued to mobilise against the Polish border. On 23 August, when tripartite negotiations about a military alliance between France, the United Kingdom and Soviet Union stalled, [56] the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany. Immediately after that, Hitler ordered the attack to proceed on 26 August, but upon hearing that the United Kingdom had concluded a formal mutual assistance pact with Poland, and that Italy would maintain neutrality, he decided to delay it.

In response to British requests for direct negotiations to avoid war, Germany made demands on Poland, which only served as a pretext to worsen relations. On 1 September , Germany invaded Poland after having staged several false flag border incidents as a pretext to initiate the attack. The alliance provided no direct military support to Poland, outside of a cautious French probe into the Saarland. On 8 September, German troops reached the suburbs of Warsaw.

The Polish counter offensive to the west halted the German advance for several days, but it was outflanked and encircled by the Wehrmacht. Remnants of the Polish army broke through to besieged Warsaw. On 17 September , after signing a cease-fire with Japan , the Soviets invaded Eastern Poland [67] under a pretext that the Polish state had ostensibly ceased to exist.

Despite the military defeat, Poland never surrendered; instead it formed the Polish government-in-exile and a clandestine state apparatus remained in occupied Poland. Germany annexed the western and occupied the central part of Poland, and the Soviet Union annexed its eastern part; small shares of Polish territory were transferred to Lithuania and Slovakia. On 6 October, Hitler made a public peace overture to the United Kingdom and France but said that the future of Poland was to be determined exclusively by Germany and the Soviet Union.

The proposal was rejected, [61] and Hitler ordered an immediate offensive against France, [71] which would be postponed until the spring of due to bad weather. The Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries —Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the states that were in the Soviet "sphere of influence" under the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact—to sign "mutual assistance pacts" that stipulated stationing Soviet troops in these countries.

Soon after, significant Soviet military contingents were moved there. Meanwhile, Nazi-Soviet political rapprochement and economic co-operation [81] [82] gradually stalled, [83] [84] and both states began preparations for war. In April , Germany invaded Denmark and Norway to protect shipments of iron ore from Sweden , which the Allies were attempting to cut off. On the same day, Germany launched an offensive against France.

To circumvent the strong Maginot Line fortifications on the Franco-German border, Germany directed its attack at the neutral nations of Belgium , the Netherlands , and Luxembourg. The United Kingdom was able to evacuate a significant number of Allied troops from the continent by early June, although abandoning almost all their equipment.

Eight days later France signed an armistice with Germany ; it was divided into German and Italian occupation zones , [95] and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regime , which, though officially neutral, was generally aligned with Germany.

The Battle of Britain [97] began in early July with Luftwaffe attacks on shipping and harbours. The German strategic bombing offensive intensified with night attacks on London and other cities in the Blitz , but failed to significantly disrupt the British war effort [98] and largely ended in May Using newly captured French ports, the German Navy enjoyed success against an over-extended Royal Navy , using U-boats against British shipping in the Atlantic.

In November , the United States was taking measures to assist China and the Western Allies, and amended the Neutrality Act to allow "cash and carry" purchases by the Allies.

The Tripartite Pact stipulated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet Union, which attacked any Axis Power would be forced to go to war against all three.


États-nations et communauté: Le paradoxe de l’Europe?

Mediterranean and Middle East. The vast majority of the world's countries —including all the great powers —eventually formed two opposing military alliances : the Allies and the Axis. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort , blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Tens of millions of people died during the conflict due to genocides including the Holocaust , premeditated death from starvation , massacres , and disease.



We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Download to read the full article text. Oldenbourg Verlag, ; Id. Lipgens , Documents on the History of European Integration. MacArthur , Bruce R. Andrew Shonfield , Modern Capitalism.

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