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A revised and enlarged edition was published in Arendt's subtitle famously introduced the phrase "the banality of evil". Arendt takes Eichmann's court testimony and the historical evidence available, and she makes several observations about Eichmann:. I sensed I would have to live a leaderless and difficult individual life, I would receive no directives from anybody, no orders and commands would any longer be issued to me, no pertinent ordinances would be there to consult—in brief, a life never known before lay ahead of me.
Arendt suggests that this most strikingly discredits the idea that the Nazi criminals were manifestly psychopathic and different from "normal" people. Arendt insists that moral choice remains even under totalitarianism , and that this choice has political consequences even when the chooser is politically powerless:. Humanly speaking, no more is required, and no more can reasonably be asked, for this planet to remain a place fit for human habitation.
Arendt mentions, as a case in point, Denmark :. One is tempted to recommend the story as required reading in political science for all students who wish to learn something about the enormous power potential inherent in non-violent action and in resistance to an opponent possessing vastly superior means of violence.
It was not just that the people of Denmark refused to assist in implementing the Final Solution, as the peoples of so many other conquered nations had been persuaded to do or had been eager to do — but also, that when the Reich cracked down and decided to do the job itself it found that its own personnel in Denmark had been infected by this and were unable to overcome their human aversion with the appropriate ruthlessness, as their peers in more cooperative areas had.
Despite all the efforts of the prosecution, everybody could see that this man was not a "monster," but it was difficult indeed not to suspect that he was a clown. And since this suspicion would have been fatal to the entire enterprise [his trial], and was also rather hard to sustain in view of the sufferings he and his like had caused to millions of people, his worst clowneries were hardly noticed and almost never reported p.
And just as you [Eichmann] supported and carried out a policy of not wanting to share the earth with the Jewish people and the people of a number of other nations—as though you and your superiors had any right to determine who should and who should not inhabit the world—we find that no one, that is, no member of the human race, can be expected to want to share the earth with you. This is the reason, and the only reason, you must hang. Beyond her discussion of Eichmann himself, Arendt discusses several additional aspects of the trial, its context, and the Holocaust.
Arendt's book introduced the expression and concept of the banality of evil. Banality, in this sense, does not mean that Eichmann's actions were in any way ordinary, or even that there is a potential Eichmann in all of us, but that his actions were motivated by a sort of complacency which was wholly unexceptional.
Arendt sparked controversy with Eichmann in Jerusalem upon its publication and in the years following. The controversy began by calling attention to the conduct of the Jewish people during the years of the Final Solution, thus following up the question, first raised by the Israeli prosecutor, of whether the Jews could or should have defended themselves. I had dismissed that question as silly and cruel, since it testified to a fatal ignorance of the conditions at the time.
It has now been discussed to exhaustion, and the most amazing conclusions have been drawn. The well-known historico-sociological construct of "ghetto mentality" This was the unexpected conclusion certain reviewers chose to draw from the "image" of a book, created by certain interest groups, in which I allegedly had claimed that the Jews had murdered themselves.
Stanley Milgram maintains that "Arendt became the object of considerable scorn, even calumny" because she highlighted Eichmann's "banality" and "normalcy", and accepted Eichmann's claim that he did not have evil intents or motives to commit such horrors; nor did he have a thought to the immorality and evil of his actions, or indeed, display, as the prosecution depicted, that he was a sadistic "monster".
According to his findings, Arendt attended only part of the trial, witnessing Eichmann's testimony for "at most four days" and basing her writings mostly on recordings and the trial transcript.
Cesarani feels that this may have skewed her opinion of him, since it was in the parts of the trial that she missed that the more forceful aspects of his character appeared. Thus, he alleges that Arendt's claims that his motives were "banal" and non-ideological and that he had abdicated his autonomy of choice by obeying Hitler's orders without question may stand on weak foundations.
Cesarani suggests that Arendt's own prejudices influenced the opinions she expressed during the trial. This, according to Cesarani, led her to attack the conduct and efficacy of the chief prosecutor, Gideon Hausner , who was of Galician-Jewish origin.
Probably one of those people who doesn't know any language. Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, Galicians, but still Europeans. Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only Hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them. They would obey any order.
And outside the doors, the Oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half- Asiatic country. In addition, and very visible in Jerusalem, the peies sidelocks and caftan Jews, who make life impossible for all reasonable people here. In a review that appeared in the New York Times Review of Books , Barry Gewen argued that Cesarani's hostility stemmed from his book standing "in the shadow of one of the great books of the last half-century", and that Cesarani's suggestion that both Arendt and Eichmann had much in common in their backgrounds, making it easier for her to look down on the proceedings, "reveals a writer in control neither of his material nor of himself.
Arendt also received criticism in the form of responses to her article, also published in the New Yorker. One instance of this came mere weeks after the publication of her articles in the form of an article entitled "Man With an Unspotted Conscience". He argued that Arendt fell prey to her own preconceived notions that rendered her work ahistorical. He also directly criticized her for ignoring the facts offered at the trial in stating that "the disparity between what Miss Arendt states, and what the ascertained facts are, occurs with such a disturbing frequency in her book that it can hardly be accepted as an authoritative historical work.
Musmanno argued that Arendt revealed "so frequently her own prejudices" that it could not stand as an accurate work. Arendt relied heavily on the book by H. Adler Theresienstadt In more recent years, Arendt has received further criticism from authors Bettina Stangneth and Deborah Lipstadt.
Stangneth argues in her work, Eichmann Before Jerusalem , that Eichmann was, in fact, an insidious antisemite.
While she acknowledges that the Sassen Papers were not disclosed in the lifetime of Arendt, she argues that the evidence was there at the trial to prove that Eichmann was an antisemitic murderer and that Arendt simply ignored this. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Book by Hannah Arendt describing the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Books portal. The New York Times. Retrieved Hannah Arendt, the political philosopher who escaped Hitler's Germany and later scrutinized its morality in "Eichmann in Jerusalem" and other books, died Thursday night in her apartment at Riverside Drive.
November 9, And the crooked shall be made straight. Retrieved 26 June Robinson": A Reply by Hannah Arendt". The New York Review of Books.
Retrieved March 11, Obedience to Authority. New York: Harper. Retrieved June 26, Retrieved 27 April Again and again the arguments, the very phrases, are unconsciously repeated. Lipstadt , The Eichmann Trial, p.
Dee pp. Arendt, Hannah February—March The New Yorker. Retrieved 11 August Penguin Publishing Group. Duke University Press. The Holocaust Resource Center video. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. The World Holocaust Remembrance Center. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Abstracts from Eichmann in Jerusalem with links to articles.
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La banalita del male: Eichmann a Gerusalemme epub free
La banalità del male. Eichmann a Gerusalemme
Read online. Download PDF. Arendt's political philosophy, formed under Nazi persecution, is having a resurgence in our troubled age. La banalita del male: Eichmann a Gerusalemme epub free. Electronic books on this site are free of charge and you can search for other books written by Hannah Arendt. La banalita del male.