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Hiro Behnam. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Available from: Hiro Behnam Retrieved on: 19 December Biological Contamination of the Water and Its Effects. This study has been undertaken to improve the quality of municipal drinking water at a microbiological laboratory in Mahabad, Iran. In this case, the pathogen factors that may be transferred to the body of human are presented. In addition, different ways to get an infection by bacterium such as Coliforms, problems in Water Distribution Networks WDNs , pathogenic Microbes, Parasitic and Protistas diseases have been elaborated.
Moreover, appropriate methods to collect water samples and to submit them to the laboratory are examined. In addition, presumptive test method for evaluating the bacteriology of water based on bacteriological standards is introduced. Finally, confirmed and completed phases are presented in an effort to uncover the presence of Coliform in the water, so the bacteriological water quality must be controlled appropriately..
Keywords: Coliforms ,Parasitic and Protistas, presumptive test, confirmed and completed phases. A shortage in one or more minerals may cause different diseases, with the most common being a shortage of iodine, which can cause endemic goiter disease or fluorine shortage, which by adding a bit of that to the fresh water can provide the health of teeth Gagic, In addition to chemical elements, which are available in the water, the magnifying world of water is another living world, even if it is hidden from our sight.
There are various magnified levels of existence in the water, which are pathogenic and cause dangerous infectious diseases, and ignoring proper treatment can cause vast lost. It must be considered that pathogenic factors infected through the contaminated water cause several diseases APHA, According to the World Health Organization WHO , about people died per day in as a result of consuming contaminated water.
Of every 4 hospital beds, one is allocated to a patient who has consumed contaminated water. On average, about 5 billion infections are attributed annually to contaminated water in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Seas et al. Water and food contaminated by microbes are one of the main reasons of emerging diarrhea, infecting more than 1 billion children under 5 years of age all over the world. Fenwick, Food and water contamination is the most common cause of death in developing countries.
Obviously, over the past years, fresh water purification has significantly reduced water borne disease in most developed countries, so much so that this problem has been eradicated to some extent and controlled completely, but in developing countries more work and energy allocation is needed Medema et al. Moreover, the emergence of new facilities and urban development require trenches and excavations within city environments.
Paying less attention to installing these facilities can damage previous equipment such as WDNs, for example, broken water pipes due to excavation to install new water pipes, waste water pipes or telephone lines APHA, According to the American Water Works Association , expiration of the shelf life of the pipes, unallowable ramifications, frequent interruptions in the WDNs which creates problems like water hammering and broken pipes, resulting in negative pressure and contamination being vacuumed into the WDN , and lack of exact control on water.
Microbe contamination of water may occur accidently, but most contamination is the result of not paying enough attention to sewage disposal. Municipal and household waste water contain high levels and various kinds of microorganisms, which are pathogenic.
Although the majority of internal microbes of the alimentary canal of humans cannot live out of the body for long, there are many reasons which show that a sufficient amount of virulent will be able to survive to infect the human being.
Human health is vulnerable to consumption of contaminated water and food, to taking a shower or bath in untreated water, recreation in water, and ultimately, the use of contaminated water for agriculture and industrial purposes.
Biological organisms can enter to the body through drinking water and cause disease:. These diseases can be classified into three groups: Pathogenic microbes, viruses, and parasites and protistas. Water contamination by these organisms can be related to the contamination of the water itself or water may infect during the piping phase.
This contamination may enter the line over the distribution network. Among these reasons we can mention broken lines due to excavation, installation of ramifications, network obsolescence and negative pressure in the lines, especially in times of power outage, which interrupts the network line flow Grabow, This group of microbes infects through drinking water directly, and through food consumption indirectly.
The most important microbial diseases originating in water are shown in Table 1. Pathogenic microbes are responsible for dangerous diseases such as cholera and typhoid, and while less dangerous to some extent, is responsible for high numbers of infantile diarrhea. Diarrhea diseases and other internal infections are the main cause of death among people who live in the cities and villages of developing countries Farmer et al.
Table1: Microbial diseases originating in water. Salmonella typhi. Other salmonellas , proteose , shigella. Pathogen type of general Escherichia Coli. Different kinds of leptospira. Pastoral, Tularensis. Direct transmission of cholera from one person to another may occur, but obviously the main way of spreading it can be through the environment, and especially through water Farmer et al. Salmonellose epidemic, however, infects through food but sometimes infects through water.
In reference to the above mentioned diseases, besides water, there are other ways to transmit infection such as direct contact of one person to another one, carriers and foods Popoff et al.
Some viruses may grow in the human alimentary canal or in the mouth and larynx. These factors will be expulsed through feces which may be seen in waste water and contaminated waters. Of course, their mere presence is not sufficient reason for their being dangerous to humans. Diffusion of polio virus in water was rarely reported. The reason is that this virus becomes diluted in water, and separating it can be very difficult.
Even though the agent of infectious hepatitis is unknown, but there are epidemiological evidences that epidemics of this disease have spread all over the world by way of contaminated water Gantzer et al. A batch of protistas and parasites can also be transferred to the human body through the direct consumption of contaminated water, causing disease.
The most important diseases, which infect through Parasitic and Protistas described in Table 2. It may also infect humans through contaminated food Marshall et al.
Table 2 : Diseases which infect through Parasitic and Protistas. Entamoba histolytic. Giardia lamblia. Balantidium coli. Fasula hepatica or Dicroselum. Therefore, regarding the above mentioned explanations, to prevent water contamination and infection disease in which water is the direct infection factor, it is necessary to control the WDNs from a bacteriological and biological points of view.
This presumptive test can follow the confirmed and completed tests. Qualitative Standards of the fresh Water:. Standards are specifications that immunize the consumer from any loss and damage. About fresh water we can identify it as the following:. Fresh water standards consist of issues which are considered minimum required specifications of fresh water.
Such standards aim to determine the required specifications of drinking water. It does not mean that only such water. In many cases, inadequate financial resources, technical equipment, and lack of proper manpower are major barriers to success in this case APHA, and APHA This standard was modified and amended in and again in At the present time, standards published by the WHO are assumed as fresh water quality guidelines.
Vast use of these international standards indicates their usefulness. It is worth mentioning that not only these standards but other types as well should be considered as criterion and a gauge to indicate whether such water sources should be consumed or not, and if the water is to be used, how it should be purified.
Bacteriological standards of Fresh Water:. Pathogenic organisms which can be found in water or waste water may have entered the water by way of infected humans or other carriers. The common pathogenic bacteria, which are excreted by humans, may cause diseases of alimentary canal such as typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery and cholera. Since these organisms are very infectious, they cause thousands of fatalities in parts of the world with low levels of hygienic principles, especially in warm regions.
A bacterial classification of bacteria found in water is as follows:. This group consists of species of Streptomyces, Bacillus and species of Saprophyte and Entro Bacteryace such as Aerobacter. Microorganisms that live in water contaminated by feces also live in human or animals digestive canals including E coli , Streptococcus Faecalis , Clostridium Welchii and pathogenic species such as Salmonella and Shigella WHO, If pathogenic enteric microorganisms exist in water, the intestinal bacteria in natural fluorine will be in the minority such as E coli , Streptococcus Faecalis and Clostridium Welchii.
Thus these microorganisms are known as indicator microorganisms. Usually, E coli exists in the intestine and its presence in water indicates new fecal water contamination. Streptococcus Faecalis is not as good an indicator as E coli because there are fewer of them in the digestion canal; however, the speed which it can be fatal is as high as that of E coli Bettelheim, Each person excretes about to billion Coliform organisms besides other types of bacteria daily.
Coliforms are not harmful to humans and are actually useful in the demolition of organic materials in the waste water biological purification steps. As the number of pathogenic organisms in sewage and contaminated waters is very few, and separating them is very difficult, the Coliform organisms are used because a variety of them can be tested easily using an index.
The presence of Coliform indicates the presence of pathogenic factors. Similarly, no Coliform. Coliform bacteria consist of varieties of Aerobacter and Escherichia.
Given the fact that Aerobacter and some kinds of Escherichia can live and grow in the soil, applying Coliforms as indicator of the presence of organisms makes the matter clearer and more exact. Thus, the presence of Coliforms does not always mean that the contamination is caused by human feces Leclerc et al. Identification of E coli from other available Coliforms in the soil is very difficult, thus the complete group of Coliforms as the index of feces contamination is used Edberg et al.
In water which has been sterilized by adding chlorine or other sterilizer material, there should be no Coliform in any ml sample of water. Additionally, in water which had not been sterilized and was supposed to have been drunk,. Sometimes the presence of a maximum of 3 Coliforms in each ml.
If there were more than 3 Coliforms in ml samples, that water should not be drunk before sterilizing WHO, Since different bacteriologic tests are executed to determine fresh water health and since the design of these tests are based on the identification and measurement of organisms, it should be true that the samples, which have been collected, must be sterilized.
· DECEMBER 2013: Dataset
Hiro Behnam. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Available from: Hiro Behnam Retrieved on: 19 December Biological Contamination of the Water and Its Effects. This study has been undertaken to improve the quality of municipal drinking water at a microbiological laboratory in Mahabad, Iran.
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Tagged: ala, aplicado, Bioseguridad, cosmetologia, de, manual 10 Feb Resolucion de por la cual se adopta el Manual de. Journal of Neurobiology. Manuel Tena-Sampere. Jose Carlos Guerra Rangel. Aps — Reflexiones — Ley de. The full texts may be found here. Moisture content was sampled every two days for four weeks.
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